Anti-Aging Research: Thermography

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

*** SPECIAL NOTE FROM DR. WICHMAN ***

The following excellent article is reproduced from the Journal of Medical Physics at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804148/:

J Med Phys. 2009 Jan-Mar; 34(1): 43–47.
PMCID: PMC2804148

Infrared thermal imaging for detection of peripheral vascular disorders

Introduction

2cbwb(TTa)+qm=0
(1)

Where k is the conductivity, qm is volumetric metabolic rate of tissue, is the product of the specific heat capacity and the mass flow rate of blood units per volume of tissue, T is the unknown tissue temperature, and Ta is the arterial temperature.[21]

Materials and Methods

The patients were allowed to rest in a room where relative humidity and room temperature were controlled (to achieve equilibration body temperature with the ambient temperature). No parts of the patient were in contact with any hot or cold sources. Only a minimum number of persons were allowed inside the room. The patients were kept away from air convection sources. These precautions had been taken to minimize the variables that might influence temperature measurement.

The main objective in the preparation of the above protocol was to ensure all the variables that might have influence during thermal image were fixed. The patient was thoroughly examined by a team of doctors and a clinical report was recorded. Patients undergoing examination by thermal imaging were disrobed in the affected region for 15 minutes, in the room. A wall–mounted, air-conditioning unit provided the required temperature inside the room. The infrared thermal camera was positioned 1 m away from the affected portion of the patients and healthy volunteers. Standard views were taken with the camera mounted on a tripod stand. The regions of interest were the anterior, posterior, and lateral views. The same views of the corresponding contra-lateral region of the patient and of normal controls were also taken. The same region was continuously monitored on a color display unit with pseudo color, making temperature changes easily discernible.

Thermal imaging of the patients was carried out using the Thermovision-550 system. This is a compact lightweight focal plane array based system with a temperature resolution of 0.1K. A high-resolution color image is provided in real time, which can be viewed on a miniature screen provided with the system or by using an external monitor. The image is captured and stored in the removable PC-card. The surface temperature profiles of the patients are recorded and later analyzed using the IRWIN software. The thermal profile of the area of examination is compared with the counterpart region of the same subject and the same region of a healthy volunteer. Using the spot meter, area, and profiling tools, the change in temperature in the region of interest is determined.

Results and Discussions

Case 1

A 28-year-old male, with a history of pain in the left lower limb, which was getting aggravated on prolonged standing, was examined using thermal imaging. He had varicosity of the long saphenous system of the left lower limb. The patient was suffering from complications of varicosity for the past one year. He was using crepe bandages.

The patient was febrile and comfortable at rest and was not a smoker or user of alcohol. The respiratory system (RS), cardiovascular system (CVS), central nervous system (CNS), and per abdominal examinations were normal. Local examination of the lower limbs showed dilated veins present in the dorsal aspect of the foot, extending up to the lower one-third of the leg on the right lower limb. There were dilated tortuous veins in the dorsum of the foot in the left lower limb. The radial pulse, carotid pulse, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial pulse were normal.

Figure 1a and and1b1b show the thermal image and photograph of the affected patient's left leg. The line profile inset in Figure 1a shows the temperature profile along the toe tips. From the thermal image shown in Figure 1a, it can be clearly seen that a lower temperature is noted at the distal portion (indicated by white arrow in Figure 1a). This is probably due to sluggish blood circulation in the toes and venous drainage being inadequate due to the varicosity. In the patient, the area outlined by a black line, i.e., the demarcated dark-green patches, and a blue line, i.e., the demarcated pale-green color patch [Figure 1a] show abnormal temperatures compared to the temperature of the surrounding area of the same patient's leg and to that of a normal person's leg. The temperature in these marked regions is, on an average, 0.7 to 1°C above the normal regions. The abnormal temperature is due to varicose veins, with probable mild inflammation, which was not evident on clinical examination. The human body creates heat through the metabolic activity, which is the basic reaction of life. The blood in the near-surface veins, heats the surface more than the normal veins and arteries. Localized elevated temperatures are easier to discern when the person is in a cool room for at least 20 minutes. A uniform temperature can be seen in the leg of a normal person.

(a) Isothermal image and (b) Photograph of the affected patient's leg

Case 2

A 31-year-old male, who has a history of swelling in both the lower limbs on prolonged standing, for five years, had recurrent ulceration over the left lateral malleolus, associated with pain and discharge of pus. The patient underwent treatment and surgery four years back, for the same complaint. The RS, CVS, CNS, and per abdominal examinations were normal. Local examination of the left lower limb showed tortuous dilated veins, recurrent healing ulcers on the left lateral malleolus, ulcers covered with slough and pus discharge. Old healed scars were about 8 × 1 cm in length, present in the medial aspect of the lower limb. In the right lower limb, dilated tortuous veins, mild edema over the right ankle joint, and also old healed scars were noticed. The palpable arterial pulse was normal. The patient had systemic hypertension noted six months ago and he was under medication for the same.

Figure 2a and and2b2b show the dorsal thermal images and photograph of the affected patient's left leg. Clinically detected areas with varicosity show up as areas of increased warmth in the thermal images. From the thermal images, the warm areas are noted on the lateral side of the left leg as well, an unusual finding, because most patients have varicosity located only on the medial side of the leg. The distal region near the toes seems to be dark or with lower temperature due to the poor perfusion of blood (indicated by a white arrow in Figure 2a, and is attributed to stasis of circulation due to varicosity.

(a) Isothermal image and (b) Photograph of the affected patient's leg (Dorsal view)

Areas outlined by black lines, i.e., the demarcated dark-green patch and blue line, i.e., the demarcated pale-green color patch in Figure 2a show abnormal temperature compared to the temperature of the normal person's leg, for the same region. The demarcated area in the thermal image shows a higher temperature due to the tortuous venous carrying warm blood at a sluggish speed when compared to normal venous drainage and probable mild inflammation in those areas. The temperature changes as noted on the patient are not seen in the leg of the normal person.

Case 3

A 48-year-old male has had pain in the left leg (calf muscle) for the past two years. The pain has been severe for the past six months. He has had a history of pain aggravation on walking and pain being relieved by rest. On prolonged standing the pain increased. The RS, CVS, CNS, and per abdominal examinations were normal. The upper limb pulses were felt normally in the right and left lower limbs, the dorsalis pedis was normal in the right, with feeble low volume in the left lower limb, and the posterior tibial pulse was normal on the right, with low volume on the left. The patient is an occasional smoker and user of alcohol. There was an injury in the left big toe eight months ago. He had a nonhealing ulcer on the left great toe and gangrenous tissue was found on the great toe.

From the thermal images, the left leg medial view of the patient shows elevated temperatures because of thrombosis, a condition marked by blood clotting within the blood vessels. This disease may be potentially life threatening if dislodgment of the thrombus results in pulmonary embolism. It may be burger disease because of arterial insufficiency. It is an arterial obstruction. The clinically recorded information shows severe pain in the calf muscle, the area represented in the thermal image as a warm area shows abnormal temperature compared to the temperature of the normal person's leg, for the same region. These temperature changes are not seen in the thermal image of the normal person's left leg.

Case 4

A 40 year-old-male had a swelling in the little finger of the left hand that was two months old. The swelling was present with a pricking type of pain and pus discharge from the left ring, middle, and index fingers. Pain was radiating from the left hand and forearm to the left chest and distal phalanges. The RS, CVS, CNS, and per abdominal examinations were normal. Local examination of the patient's right upper limb was normal. The left upper limb on inspection showed gangrenous swelling with inflammation in the left little, ring, middle, and index fingers. There was purulent discharge from the nail beds that had a foul smell. There was hyperpigmentation present in the left palm. The patient was a smoker for the past 10 years (10 – 15 beedis per day), and an occasional user of alcohol. He has no history of any surgery in the past. Due to pain he was unable to sleep and has had a reduced appetite.

From the thermal images it is clearly seen that the temperature of the finger tips of the left hand is cooler than the normal body temperature, which may be attributed to vascular insufficiency. These abnormalities are due to ischemic necrosis (death of tissue affected by local injury due to loss of blood supply) of the distal phalanges. It can be seen that the temperature increase in the affected person's hand was almost 1.5°C compared to the normal hand.

Conclusions

Thermal imaging has been successfully used for medical diagnosis of vascular disorders. The temperature in the affected regions of patients with vascular disorders was low in the extremities due to obstructed arteries. However, in some areas it showed 0.7 to 1°C higher temperature than the normal areas due to inflammation and venous flow alteration. In general the thermal image findings were in good agreement with the clinical findings. However, the areas showing higher temperature contrast were noted not to be obvious in the clinical examination. This study demonstrates the usefulness of thermal imaging for medical diagnostics, with high reliability.

Articles from Journal of Medical Physics are provided here courtesy of Medknow Publications

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thermography or infrared thermography (IRT) uses infrared rays to create an image of the body. This non-invasive procedure maps the body’s surface temperature which can be used to diagnose potential and existing medical issues such as breast cancer, diabetes, neuropath and vascular disorders.

Some diseases cause variations in body temperature, which produce colored patterns on a monitor. The doctor interprets each pattern to diagnose issues and then follow up with further testing or treatment.

* The A.R.I. Research Pipeline *

We are seeking INVESTORS for an on-site,

state-of-the-art Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC)

harvesting system to replace the "other" tests:

• superior enumeration technology
• faster turnaround
• lower cost
• in-hand "liquid biopsies"
• PATIENT-SPECIFIC breakthroughs → targeted infusions, oncolytic viruses, dendritic vaccines

I N T E R E S T E D ?

TERMS:

• we seek a total investment of $50,000; the minimum participation level will be$5000
• we anticipate running ~5 CTC counts per week (~250 counts per year)
• fixed costs are one $100 cartridge + ~$50 in labor/supplies per count = ~$150 per count • an extremely competitive price would be$350 per count, yielding a NET profit of ~$200 per count (~$50,000 per year)
• therefore, we anticipate recovering the total investment in ~1 year
• the investor pool shall receive 100% of NET profits from CTC counts until the total investment has been recovered
• afterwards, the investor pool shall receive 25% of NET profits from CTC counts for an additional 3 years
• of course, all CTC count results and all harvested cells shall remain the property of A.R.I.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) helps all kinds of people. It’s used to help patients suffering from sports injuries, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, infections, arthritis and a huge range of other medical conditions. As we all know, oxygen is vital for life, and life cannot exist without it. It follows that oxygen is essential for effective healing and recovery.

Call (770) 232-7883

Click to E-Mail Us Now!